Socialisation of solid waste management in Hoi An
Project title: Building a socialized model of domestic waste management in Hoi An (VN/SGP/OP4/Y3/CORE/10/07)
The challenges in the management of domestic waste in Hoi An
Low efficiency in waste collection
The public service company is responsible for collecting domestic waste in the town. Each family puts domestic waste in a bag or a trashcan of the family to be collected at a fixed time daily by waste collection trucks from the public service company. All the solid waste is collected and taken to Cam Ha landfill. The waste collection capacity of the company is approximately 45 tonnes/daily in which the collection rate in town is 95-100%, but this rate is only about 60% in the outskirts and the remaining amount is treated on the spot.
The landfill in Cam Ha commune has an area of about 9,000m2, but there are no liners in the bottom of the landfill and no system is available to collect and treat landfill leachate [L?u Th? Ng?c H?i (2010)][2]. It is very common to find people coming to the landfill daily to collect the waste for recycling. Meanwhile the waste is not compacted, nor is it covered with soil so the landfill leachate percolates the ground in the landfill, spreading an obscene smell, contaminating the surface water and groundwater source, polluting the environment, making the landfill an ideal place for rats, flies and mosquitos. Thus, the landfill is a cause for dangerous contagious diseases for people who collect waste in Cam Ha landfill to sell for recycling as they may be infected with serious diseases like pneumonia, cholera, skin diseases, etc. The landfill capacity of 45 tonnes/daily is becoming exceeded.
The waste collection efficiency of the public service company is not high for various reasons. For example, narrow lanes and alleys often make it impossible for waste collection trucks to enter to do their work. Therefore, domestic waste is often collected mainly in major streets and the education activities of the company on waste management and classification are still limited and ineffective. It is therefore necessary to mobilise the participation of the whole society in the management of the waste, especially domestic waste, and in waste collection, classification and treatment in the homes so that less pressure is put on the company as well as the landfill in the context of the waste volume being increased due to improved standard of living and tourist activities.
Limitations in local residents' awareness and habits in waste collection, classification and treatment.

Insufficient attention is paid to the role and the participation of waste material agencies and waste collectors in Hoi An.

In Hoi An, a daily amount of about 7, 600 kg of recycling waste is bought by waste material agencies [??ng V?n Nh?n (2010)] (4). This waste volume for recycling is very significant as it reduces the waste volume sent to the landfill in Hoi An and it contributes to the maintenance and development of the recycling industry in our country. However, the waste classification at the source (in the homes) is very limited. Most people put organic waste and inorganic waste together for the waste collection trucks [L?u Th? Ng?c H?i (2010)][2].

Presently in Hoi An, there are 10 agencies (refered to as "waste material agencies") specialised in buying waste for recycling. Most agencies buy all the waste from people who collect and buy the waste (refered to as waste collectors). Each agency has about 15 to 50 waste collectors. The agencies buy from 50 to 1,400 kg of waste for recycling. Things like hair and duck feathers are not bought as the agencies cannot find consumers. Most agencies do not buy plastic bags as most of which are dirty and wet, making it hard to classify and find the quantity in addition to the contamination and the unpleasant smell...[Nguy?n Anh Nh?t (2010)][3].
As in many other places in Vietnam, collecting waste for reclycling in Hoi An is mainly done by women. They collect and buy waste for recycling from families and sell them to agencies. These people are poor and their job is of great importance in domestic waste management task. This essential human force needs to be properly made use of in order to enhance the efficiency of domestic waste collection and recycling. waste collectors do this job to earn a living and they also play a big role in domestic waste collection and recycling. Recent studies have shown that when the capacity of waste collectors in collecting the waste is enhanced, the volume of the waste collected is bigger and their income is increased. Researchers also find that that the waste collection capacity of these people is linked to the volume of the waste collected and their income. After waste collectors receive some education about the process of buying the waste, the average number of their customers increases by 39.93% daily, the volume of waste that they can buy increases by 56.1% and their income increases by 41.87%.

The project of “Enhancing the management capacity of the environemnt in Hoi An Ancient town” funded by GEF SGP has been implemented in Hoi An and has brought about positive impacts, specifically:
• The project has examined and evaluated the situation of waste management in restaurants and hotels in Hoi An Ancient town. Especially, it has made an evaluative report and suggested some solutions for the waste water treatment to 13 restaurants and hotels in Minh An and C?m Phô wards in Hoi An [Hoi An city Youth Union (2010)][5].
• The project has successfully piloted the model of waste management in Cam Thanh ward. The model has attracted the attention and participation of the local governments and the residents, especially it has raised the capacity of the local residents and waste collectors in collecting and classifying the waste, significantly contributing to environment sanitation and domestic waste management in C?m Thanh, a ward expected to be an ecological village for tourists to visit in the tourist orientation development and the preservation of the ancient town of Hoi An. The project has also mobilised the fees from the local residents for the public service company to collect the waste and the project has ensured the sustainable development of the waste collection among the team of waste collectors. With the success of the model in Cam Thanh, the project has expanded its influence to other communes such as C?m An and C?m Châu, and a similar project has been built and multiplied in Thanh Ha ward.
• On the basis of the project results and the learning experience from the model implementation in C?m Thanh commune, the cooperation and experience from other projects in Hoi An, the project has helped to write education materials about domestic waste collection, classification and treatment, as well as regulations in domestic waste management. The regulations are built with the community education method and they are highly appreciated by the local authorities and related organisations. The regulations have been sent to the City People's Committee and the City People's Council for approval and issuance for implementation.
• The capacity and the awareness of the community and the local residents are a key result of the project. The waste collection, classification and treatment have failed in many places in Vietnam due to the lack of adequate implementation of education activities in enhancing the awareness and in changing the behavior in the community. The project has successfully conducted education activities with creative contents and forms to increase community participation.
• The results of the project are very encouraging and they are highly evaluated by the local government and organisations. However, with limited resources and time, the project only involves the participation of the government and the residents in Cam Thanh commune in the education activities for the waste collection, classification and recycling. Also, the projet has not got anough conditions to mobilise the participation of an extensive population, especially organisations and waste collectors or waste materials agencies, nor has the project been carried out in many areas in Hoi An to create extensive impacts. Therefore, it is necessary to continue with the acceleration of socialisation attempts in domestic waste treatment.

Main objectives and contents of the project "Building a socialised model of domestic waste management in Hoi An"

The domestic waste management in cities in general, and in Hoi An in particular should involve the participation of the whole society to ensure sustainability and efficiency. Waste collection, classification and treatment should be implemented on the basis of waste economy and the importance of education activities in enhancing the community and local inhabitants' awareness and in changing their behavior. The importance also lies in the government policies to invest in upgrading the infrastructure, to enhance staff capacity in waste management and ensure the effective monitoring in the enforcement of related regulations in environmental protection in general, and waste in particicular.

On the basis of the community education approach, with education activities being a key tool in mobilising the participation of the society and the focus being on waste collectors, as well as their role in the task of waste collecting, classification and treatment, the project of "Establishing a socialised model of domestic waste management in Hoi An" inherit and promote the results that have been achieved in order to implement the following key content in enhancing the efficiency of domestic waste management in Hoi An for environmental protection and sustainable development of a world cultural heritage.
• Mobilize the participation of organizations and offices in Hoi An in waste collection, classification and treatment.
• Integrate education on domestic waste management into local social, political and cultural activities.
• Enhance the capacity of the commune and ward governments and mass organizations in Hoi An in domestic waste management.
• Continue with the model in Cam Thanh commune and Thanh Ha ward, building it into a key model in waste classification at source and in enforcing the regulations on domestic waste management in Hoi An. Continue to promote the movement of "Saying 'No' to plastic bags" in the community in Hoi An.
• Emphasize the role and the participation of waste material agencies and waste collectors in domestic waste collection, classification and treatment. Gather waste enhance their understanding and capacity in waste collection, classification and treatment. Increase the cooperation among waste collectors, waste material agencies, local authorities and related organisations to help with the task of waste collection, classification and treatment. The project model will promote education activities in the community and enhance the waste collection, classification and treatment, in addition to improving the role of waste collectors. This model is also significant in giving sustainable support to the livelihood and income of waste collectors who are poor people in the society.
• Summarize and evaluate the results of the model. Disseminate the results and the learning experience of the project to multiply the model. On the basis of the result and the learning experience, the project will make a report, providing recommendations to the local authorities about policies on enhancing the efficiency of domestic waste management.
Project objectives
1. Long- term objectives
To contribute to enhancing the efficiency in domestic waste management in Hoi An, as well as in environmental protection and sustainable development of a world cultural heritage.
2 Expected objectives, results and activities
Objective 1: Enhance the socialization of domestic waste management in Hoi An.
Result 1.1: The participation of organizations/individuals in domestic waste management in Hoi An is mobilized.
Result 1.2: The domestic waste management capacity of the local governments, and the mass organizations in Hoi An is enhanced.
Result 1.3: The community model in domestic waste collection, classification and treatment continues to be implemented and improved for experience dissemination in model multiplication in Hoi An
Objective 2: To build a model of domestic waste collection, classification and treatment, with the participation of the community, local residents, waste material agencies and waste collectors.
Result 2.1: waste collectors organized into teams and associations (tentatively 10 groups of 10 individuals) are capable of developing their business on the basis of increasing the daily volume of the waste collected.
Result 2.2: waste collectors receive technical and financial support to implement planned activities.
Objective: To summarize and evaluate the results. To disseminate and multiply the model. To make recommendations for policy making.
Result 3.1: Technical materials of the project and recommendation reports on policy making are compiled, assessed and disseminated.

Project Snapshot

Grantee: Women Union of Hoi An city
Country: Viet nam
Area Of Work: Multifocal Area
Operational Phase: Phase 4
Grant Amount: US$ 50,000.00
Co-Financing Cash: US$ 20,000.00
Co-Financing in-Kind: US$ 18,000.00
Project Number: VN/SGP/OP4/Y3/CORE/10/07
Start Date: 12/2010
End Date: 12/2012
Status: Satisfactorily Completed
Project Characteristics and Results
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Grantee Contact

Mrs. Huong Thi Nguyen


1 Hoang Dieu, Hoi An, Quang Nam province
central ,

SGP Country office contact

Mrs. Huyen Thu Thi NGUYEN
Phone: (84 24) 38500150
Fax: (84-24) 37265520
Ms. Nguyen Thi Hai Yen
Phone: (84 24) 38500155
Fax: (84-24) 37265520


One Green UN house, 304 Kim Ma district
Hanoi, 100000

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