Experimental production of biodiesel on agricultural land polluted with heavy metals in eastern Macedonia - 2
Experimental production of biodiesel on agricultural land polluted with heavy metals in eastern Macedonia - 2
One of the most significant characteristics of the modern age is the absolute dominance of the oil and its derivates, as a source of energy for transport and as a fuel for all kind of mechanization. The burning of oil in the process of usage, causes global climate changes –greenhouse effect and emission of dangerous gases, and in case of collapse or inadequate storing / transportation –pollution of the soil and water.

Also, the oil is a limited resource, and the increased demand of oil on the market causes growth of the prize and economy collapses.
On the other side, big part of the agricultural land in Macedonia is left unused and neglected.

Such is the case of Municipality of Probistip and its villages. The Municipality has a serious reason for not using the agricultural land for production: part of the land is not suitable for production of any kind of crops for human nutrition or as feed for livestock because of the pollution with heavy metals such as lead, zinc, cadmium (as a result of waste –water flood in 1979 and 1986).
One of the project main goals is regarding the so called central area (CLIMATE CHANGES); promotion of production and usage of sustainable energy for reducing the negative effects on the environment, and lowering the coast of energy, especially for the local community.
Innovation of this project is its attempt to cause effect in two significant areas:

Protection and improvement of the local environment, by decontamination of one of the most fertile regions in Eastern Macedonia and improvement of the standard of life and economy of local (agricultural) population by production of eco-acceptable biofuels, which will increase their incomes and local economy growth.

Biofuels do not cause pollution of the environment; do not cause global ecological catastrophes in cases of spillage etc. International researches show that the most perspective are the alternative fuels or biofuels (fuels produced from biomass) One of those fuels is BIODIESEL. BIODEASEL is a commercial name for the METHYL ESTAR (ME). (ME) is a liquid, standard non-mineral fuel, which is totally decomposable, non-toxic, and has a unique characteristic-reduces toxic gasses that cause the greenhouse effect.
Republic of Macedonia is mostly agricultural country, but with extensive agricultural economy, with bad economical condition of the producers and their inability to purchase modern technologies and mechanization. Fuel is a huge problem for this people, especially the growing prices of the oil, which is one major limiting factor for usage of modern agro-mechanization.
In the period of 2006-2007, an extensive project has been implemented in cooperation with Japanese government, regarding determination of the area of contaminated agricultural landing. Agricultural land along river Zletovica of approximately 4500 ha has been tested. About 750 ha are determined to be contaminated and Land cadastre for contaminated areas was established. This area needs remediation in order to be back in normal condition.
It was recommended that remediation should be done by using crops appropriate for bio-diesel production.

GENERAL GOAL, SPECIFIC GOALS, ACTIVITIES AND VISIBLE INFLUENCE OF THE PROJECT SHOWN BY INDICATORS

GENERAL GOAL
Protection and improvement of the environment, by decontamination of 20 ha agricultural areas, planned with this project, part of the 750 ha polluted with heavy metals.
Crops such as (turnip, beets, sunflower) will be used for production of biofuels with multiple effects
- production of new type fuel for the agricultural machinery
- decontamination of the fertile agricultural land
- lowering agricultural expenses

SPECIFIC GOAL number 1.
Lowering the effect on the global climate by lowering the emission of the greenhouse effect causing gases and lower usage of diesel fuels-the literature has many examples of reduced emission of GG ,such as carbohydrate monoxide, sodium oxides by using biofuels.
One of the project of PMG program implemented in Poland (Small-scale Biofuel production for Agriculture, Poland), showed that the use of biodiesel lowers the usage of diesel fuel for tractors by 50-75%

ACTIVITIES:
1.Production of biodiesel fuels (from 1 ton of turnip average 0,4 tons of biodiesel is produced for the agricultural production of the local habitants.

Measurable influence / indicators
A) Lower emission of greenhouse effect causing gasses –Determination by direct measures of gases realized by burning biodiesel in tractors and vehicle motors.
B) Reduced usage of diesel fuel for tractors and other agricultural machinery, and also determining of quantity of usage of diesel and biodiesel per unit.

SPECIFIC GOAL number 2.
Decontamination of the agricultural land polluted with heavy metals, which soil can not be used for food production.
ACTIVITIES:
1. 1.Selection (after testing the quality of the soil) and preparation of the land for planting of cultures, suitable for production of biodiesel (turnip):
2. Planting of selected 20 ha agricultural land (in the next 10 years 750 ha of polluted agricultural soil, is planned for remediation)
3. Collection of the crops and production of biodiesel,
4. Quality –testing of the produced fuel and firm waste.
5. Testing of the quality of the soil after the finishing of the project (two extracting processes.

Measurable influence / indicators

A) Setting the degree of decontamination of the soil, by measuring the level of heavy metals in the soil, by samples taken before the planting and after collecting the crops-having in mind that remediation abilities of the plants is limited, this indicator can be considered long-term indicator, able to provide relevant results for long-term remediation
B) Crops by unit of surface- There is data in the literature, regarding decreased level of crops, as a result of soil pollution with heavy metals. Coast-effect of these project activities can be determined by this indicator.
C) Determination of the level and location of the heavy metals in the crops and the produced biodiesel-this parameter is important for determination of the relevance of the project regarding decontamination of the soil, it is expected that produced biodiesel will have eco-acceptable characteristics, and that the level of heavy metals, especially lead will be in the level of acceptable allowed concentrations

SPECIFIC GOAL number 3:
Improvement of the economic condition of the local citizens, by increasing their income thru efficient usage of the agricultural product-biodiesel for personal needs.

Activities:
1. Request to Council of the Municipality and signing contract with the major regarding approval and leasing a space for installation and use of needed equipment-reactor for production of biodiesel.
2. Reconstruction of the space where equipment will be installed
3. Purchase and installation of equipment (processors’ etc.) for experimental production of biodiesel
4. Production of biodiesel
5. Promotion of the possibilities for production of biodiesel on polluted surfaces in the region by meetings with agricultures and media
6. Advocacy and lobbing for laws and bylaws regulation of the production and stimulation of the production.
 

Project Snapshot

Grantee:
MASINSKI KRUG, Probistip
Country:
Macedonia
Area Of Work:
Climate Change Mitigation
Operational Phase:
Phase 5
Grant Amount:
US$ 24,491.00
Co-Financing Cash:
US$ 18,216.00
Co-Financing in-Kind:
US$ 14,794.00
Project Number:
MKD/SGP/OP5/CORE/CC/11/03
Start Date:
3/2012
End Date:
9/2013
Status:
Satisfactorily Completed
Project Characteristics and Results
Gender Focus
10 women participated in the project implementation
Replication of project activities
In order to meet the created interest among the local farmers in the region, Masinski Krug is planning to replicate and to continue with land fito-remediation with oil seed rape on the existing area as well as by expanding the contaminated area.
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Indicators
Biophysical
Tonnes of CO2 decreased or avoided by energy efficient and renewable energy technologies or applying environmentally sustainable transport practices introduced by SGP Project 3
Empowerment
Number of women participated / involved in SGP project 10
Empowerment
Innovative financial mechanisms put in place through SGP project 1
Livehood
Total monetary value (US dollars) of ecosystem goods sustainably produced and providing benefit to project participants and/or community as a whole (in the biodiversity, international waters, and land degradation focal areas as appropriate) 1500
Livehood
Number of individuals (gender diaggregated) who have benefited* from SGP project 20

Grantee Contact

Mr. Nikolco Kolev
Phone: + 389 32 480 200
Email: zmk_probistip@yahoo.com
 

Address

H. T. Karpos bb
Probistip , 2210

SGP Country office contact

Mr. Zlatko Samardziev
Phone:
+389-(0)2-310-99-56
Fax:
+389-(0)2-310-99-56
Email:
Ms Melita Ivanova
Phone:
+389-(0)2-310-99-56
Fax:
+389-(0)2-310-99-56
Email:

Address

Majka Tereza 15/6
Skopje, 1000