Energy recovery and utilization from piggery waste using biogas technology
Energy recovery and utilization from piggery waste using biogas technology
The project has two primary objectives, namely, (i) sustainable disposal of animal waste which otherwise was going to result in possible pollution of streams and rivers as well as emission of Green House Gases (GHG) such as methane (CH4), and (ii) providing an alternative green energy option for poor rural farming communities. The sustainable and environmentally friendly disposal of animal manure through utilization of the manure using biogas technology will ensure that streams and rivers in the periphery of intensive agricultural production sites do not get loaded with high phosphate and nitrate content waste. The project will eliminate the indiscriminate disposal of manure. The value of animal waste will be realized through this project.

The rationale for this project is that sustainable waste disposal is a problem for intensive agricultural production facilities such as piggeries, poultry production establishments and dairy farms. However, the adoption and use of biogas technology will yield a two-fold benefit of waste disposal and energy generation.

The objectives of this project are in line with the main focal area of “Climate Change” of GEF Small Grants Programme, specifically within the operational programmes of promoting the adoption of renewable energy by removing barriers and reducing implementation costs. Pig farmers in the South East agricultural region shall through this project realize that they have valuable renewable energy source, being pig manure, on their farms, and can tap on it rather than purchasing alternative costly energy, such as energy from fossil fuel sources.

Survey of piggery concentration in the South East agricultural region, and identification of piggeries with a critical waste management problem.
The piggery section of the Ministry of agriculture has a database of piggery establishments in the region of interest. It has to date noted 59 piggery projects with at least 4449 pigs. The project shall continuously update itself on the establishments of piggeries with the objective of ensuring that all new project owners are enlightened on the project activities and results. The project will also identify projects with a critical waste management problem.

Farmer training on sustainable piggery waste management, and biogas generation.
Short courses shall be arranged at the Centre for In-service and Continuing Education (CICE) for pig farmers in the South East agricultural region, and training shall be on waste management and biogas generation. The current trend of indiscriminate waste disposal on the land surface by pig farmers shall be reviewed and the framers taught on the hazards of the practice. The training shall be done by the project

Construction of a mobile biogas plant and commissioning.
A private contractor shall be engaged to construct and commission a mobile biogas plant. However, project monitoring and supervision shall be done by the researchers and engineers at the Botswana College of Agriculture.

Experimental design
Feed shall comprise only one conventional commercial pig feed, and it shall be fed to the pigs whose waste shall be used for energy generation. The project shall build only one mobile biogas plant, which shall either be placed in a controlled environment facility (house), or shall alternatively be very well insulated to control the internal temperature of the biogas plant. The biogas plant’s internal temperature shall be varied at four levels (treatments) representative of the four seasons of the year for Sebele locality, namely summer, autumn, winter and spring. The temperature chosen for each treatment shall be the average ambient temperature for the specific season for Sebele/Gaborone, determined from at least 5 year data of ambient temperatures. Each treatment shall be replicated three times over a period of three months. A thermometer located inside the biogas plant chamber shall be used to monitor and control the biogas plant inside temperature.

Feeding rates of inputting the biomass into the digester shall be varied at three levels (treatments) of feeding, namely feeding once a day, once in two days and once in three days. Dung dilution rates, i.e ratio of dung to water shall be varied at three levels of 0.75: 1, 1:1 and 1:0.75 weight basis. All treatments shall be replicated at least three times. The sequence of allocation of all the treatments shall be on a completely randomised design basis.

Commencement of biogas plant operation.
Once commissioned, the biogas plant shall be operated by the farmer or cluster of farmers at whose farm it shall be located and the project staff. Piggery manure shall primarily be sourced from the chosen Farmers piggery, whose selection criteria requires that he/she should be having at least 15 sows. Farmers who are within and outside the South East agricultural region, and have the means to bring their excess piggery manure to the biogas plant shall be allowed to do so.

Field days and Community education operations on waste management and biogas plant operation.
Field days shall also be arranged where farmers from both within and outside of the South East agricultural region are taught the practical aspects of reducing manure waste on the farm by means of biogas technology. The emphasis during field days shall be on the practical aspects of methane production using biogas technology. Lessons will be provided on the areas of waste management, environmental conservation, pollution of streams and rivers by animal waste. The training shall be done by the project staff.

Project management: monitoring and evaluation, as well as reporting to sponsors.
The project team, led by the Team leader, Dr E. M. Chimbombi shall do a daily management of the project, recording daily requirements of operating a biogas plant. All project activities shall be recorded on a daily basis. A periodic quarterly review of the project shall continuously be undertaken, with the objective of documenting all the pitfalls, pros and cons of operating a biogas plant. Reports shall subsequently be submitted to the sponsor.


 
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Project Snapshot

Grantee:
Botswana College of Agriculture
Country:
Botswana
Area Of Work:
Climate Change Mitigation
Operational Phase:
Phase 5
Grant Amount:
US$ 31,125.00
Co-Financing Cash:
US$ 9,044.00
Co-Financing in-Kind:
US$ 11,334.00
Project Number:
BOT/SGP/OP5/CORE/CC/11/02
Start Date:
6/2012
End Date:
7/2014
Status:
COMPLETEPENDING
Project Characteristics and Results
Notable Community Participation
Phase 1 of the project shall be the identification of a cluster of community owned farms where manure management is a problem. This phase will ensure that farmers who have a definite need of manure management are identified, selected and educated about biogas production from piggery manure, and hence community participation shall be assured. Subsequently, a farmer shall be selected using the following criteria, for housing the mobile biogas plant on his/her farm: i) To be eligible for housing and hosting the mobile biogas plant, the farm must be within a radius of 100 km from Gaborone, for ease of monitoring by project staff. ii) The farmer must be having a minimum of 15 sows. iii) The farmer must have been in pig production for at least five (5) consecutive years, and still be willing to continue. iv) The farm and all other properties of the owner must not be attached by a third party financier, to ensure that the piggery production is not under threat of liquidation. v) The types of feed used by the farmer must be approved by the project team and the staff of the piggery section of the Ministry of Agriculture. This is to ensure that the farmer feeds only conventional acceptable pig feed for the entire course of the study. vi) The selected farmer must be willing to host farmers when they are brought to his/her farm for biogas technology demonstrations. vii) Equal opportunity shall be given to all farmers irrespective of gender. The second phase shall be the actual generation of energy from biogas, with the objective of ensuring that farmers learn how the technology operates so that they can build their own systems if they so wish. Farmers shall avail their manure to the biogas facility (Figure 2) for conversion into energy and thereby get relieved from having manure heaps and piles on farms.
Capacity - Building Component
Short courses shall be arranged at the Centre for In-service and Continuing Education (CICE) for pig farmers in the South East agricultural region, and training shall be on waste management and biogas generation. The current trend of indiscriminate waste disposal on the land surface (Figure 3) by pig farmers shall be reviewed and the framers taught on the hazards of the practice. The training shall be done by the project staff.
Indicators
Empowerment
Number of women participated / involved in SGP project 15
Livehood
Total monetary value (US dollars) of clean energy services provided to project participants and / or community as a whole (in the climate change focal area) 8

Grantee Contact

Dr Ezekiel Chimbombi
Phone: +2673650199
Email: echimbombi@gmail.com
 

Address

P/Bag 0027
Gaborone , SADC ,

SGP Country office contact

Ms. Abigail Engleton
Phone:
+267 363-3767
Email:

Address

UN Building, Government Enclave Corner Khama Crescent & President Drive P O Box 54
Gaborone, SADC