The main problem to be addressed by the Project is land degradation around natural water reservoirs and wetlands in Kinkangu and Tatala communities. The two communities lie within a four-kilometer stretch along a major annual stream. The nearest (Kinkangu) is approximately five (5) Kilometers from Bunkpurugu, the district capital. Tatala is nine (9) kilometers from Bunkpurugu. The people are predominantly peasant farmers’, dependant on the annual rains for the major crop cultivation activities. During the dry season, members of both communities engage in dry season vegetable production using water from natural water reservoirs. It is the improper ways in which they carry out these activities that now threaten the very source of their livelihood. This degradation has affected the watersheds and the ecologically important wetlands.

In mentioning these objectives, it is not forgotten that the problem the Project seeks to address is watershed and wetlands degradation in the target communities. The project area is low lying with the communities living along the stream with several natural water reservoirs and wetlands. Being a major source of fresh vegetables (tomatoes, onion, garden egg etc) and fruits (orange, mango, some plantain, banana and palm nuts) in the district especially during the dry season, it must be noted that any significant change in the vegetation, landform and water availability in the project area has a positive or negative implication not only for the inhabitants of these communities but the entire district and for that matter the whole region.

As mentioned earlier on, the key problem to be addressed under the Project is watershed and wetlands degradation within the Project area.

The level and rate of degradation in the intended Project area has assumed alarming proportions as a result of the already poor quality of life of the people. This has been brought about as a result of the following bad practices:

• Inappropriate/bad farming practices such as slash and burn method of land clearing
• Cultivation of fragile ecosystems like the banks of stream, reservoirs and the use of the wetlands for agricultural activity
• Indiscriminate tree felling for use as fuelwood and for shelter/construction
• The incidence of indiscriminate bushfire especially during the dry season and
• Hunting and harvesting of trees in the wetlands

It is a combination of the above five key points that have among others contributed largely to the present state of affairs as far as the environment of the Project area is concerned. With the water resources fast deteriorating and soil fertility levels well below average, the agricultural activities of the people (mainly subsistence farmers) are yielding less and less returns.

With the steady deterioration of the watersheds, less water is now available for dry season gardening, which is a very important income generating activity for the people. The people are therefore becoming increasingly poorer as they continue to degrade the remaining fragile eco-systems for their survival.

Because of the intricate linkage between poverty and natural resource depletion especially in rural farming communities, the Project would also be simultaneously tackling poverty both directly and indirectly. The degradation problem in the target areas has been brought about by a combination of various inefficient ways of managing and using natural resources.

As mentioned earlier, poverty has a crosscutting influence on the watershed and wetlands deterioration problem. This however has been compounded by a rapid increase in the local resident population meaning that more lands (usually with very low fertility) must be cleared and put under cultivation to meet the corresponding increasing demand for food. This has resulted in about less than 20 percent of the original vegetation remaining. Also, nearly the entire land area, especially around the reservoirs is bare or inhabited by grass species, which suffers burning during the dry season. The stream, which used to have water all year round now dries up in the dry season. One of the three natural water reservoirs also dries up while a second is showing signs of deteriorating to that stage. The wetlands although still wet all year round is inhabited by only grass species and it’s being threatened by hunting activities during the dry season.

2.2 Objectives

The objectives of the project are considered under immediate and development objectives

Development Objective: To enhance the quality of life of the people through increased community involvement in watershed management, wetland conservation and restoration of the surrounding lands and vegetation, and to educate communities on sustainable management and use of natural resources.

Immediate Objective: The immediate objective of the Project is to bring about sustainable watershed management through enhancement of vegetation cover, enrichment planting in the wetlands and effective bushfire control, as well as regulated tree felling for use as fuel wood and shelter/construction.

Specific objectives of the Project are as follows:
• To bring about a high level of awareness on the management of watersheds and wetlands in particular and other environmental problems of concern among the target communities
• To provide appropriate training as relates to sustainable natural resource use and management
• To bring about re-vegetation of the targeted degraded areas (watersheds and wetlands) through the enforcement of community rules and regulations that promote natural regeneration
• To bring about a reduction in tree felling for use as fuelwood through promotion of the establishment of woodlots
• To encourage water resource use planning and co-ordination of local activities
• To actually re-vegetate the degraded area (including enrichment planting in the wetlands) through establishment of woodlots (as source of fuelwood) and tree crop plantations
• To increase soil fertility through promotion and adoption of sustainable farming practices like green mulching, cover cropping and agro-forestry which should reduce the amount of land cleared for farming activities and
• Promotion of alternative livelihood activities like eco-tourism, and beekeeping within the target area


The outcome of the project intervention is a rehabilitated land in Kingkangu/Talala with a well functioning wetland which is contributing significantly to food security, environmental restoration and improvement in the quality of life of the people.

The expected outputs to achieve this outcome are:

• 85% of people within the target communities highly sensitized, aware and practising efficient bushfire control and prevention techniques, and various wetland conservation practices

• Local community-level rules and regulations on sustainable natural resource exploitation and use put in place in both target communities

• At least five people from each of the two target communities trained on tree nursery management and as awareness creation and communication co-coordinators.

• One community natural regeneration reserve of varying acreages demarcated and being managed in each community

• Sacred groves under effective collaborative management

• Five acres of woodlots established in each of the two communities

• 50% percent of farmers to be practising mulch and plant without burning (sustainable agriculture)

• Beekeeping associations formed and active in each target community and

• Eco-tourism potential of target communities developed

It is important to mention here that one of the very first activities that would be undertaken upon the take-off of the Project is the carrying out of a baseline study of the Project area. This will be closely linked to the compilation of profiles of the two target communities.

This activity is very important, as it will form the basis of comparison or reference point for reviewing progress as well as evaluating the general performance of the Project as part of the functioning Monitoring and Evaluating System. It must also be put on record that the stated results if achieved would contribute a lot to realizing targets and goals set under national environmental policies like the National Action Plan to Combat Desertification and Drought (NAPCDD).


This section is devoted to the various activities in sequential manners, which are to be implemented to lead to the expected results mentioned under section 3.0 (Project Objectives and Intended Results). Below are the various expected results of the Project and their corresponding activities. A two-page Logical Framework Analysis showing the Project goals, objectives, results and activities is also attached.


Result 1: 85% of people within the target communities highly sensitized, aware and practicing efficient bushfire control and prevention techniques, as well as wetland conservation

Planned Activities

4.1.4 Sensitizing target communities on the aims and objectives of the GEF assisted Project and carrying out community profile compilation

Under this sub-activity, participatory fora/durbars would be organized in the target communities where the aims and objectives of the Project would be discussed with the people. Specific topics to be discussed during the community fora include:

• Project Background/Project Aims/Objectives
• Project Activities (Actual restoration of degraded sites)
• Community responsibility/Roles
• Ownership of rehabilitation/restoration process
• Sharing of benefits (ensuring fairness, equity and social justice) and
• Participatory Monitoring and Evaluation procedures

Design, Production and Implementation of targeted multi-media awareness creation programmes
Ignorance can be labeled as one of the main causes of the watershed and wetlands degradation problem being experienced within the target communities. In the light of the above, an aggressive participatory awareness creation and education process/programme needs to be developed and implemented to raise the consciousness level of people within the target communities in relation to wetland conservation

The concept of sustainable education, which is to be implemented under this program takes into consideration the ideas and aspirations of the target group. Through active participation in the whole process, members of the group are enabled and empowered to make informed decisions about their relationship with their environment.

The strategy to be implemented involves education of the target communities’ on issues of watersheds and wetland conservation. The education, if well carried out will raise their level of awareness on wetland conservation. This awareness will arouse concern regarding importance of wetlands and its conservation.

The concern will also be translated into commitment to do something to conserve watersheds and wetlands and protect the environment. The commitment will then require an action to act individually and/or collectively on the farm, community and in the school.

The whole concept of sustainable education is only successful if the relevant and proper channels are identified for the dissemination of the information. Some channels that are to be used for the information dissemination include: Radio, use of audio-visual (TV and Video), posters and Billboards. In all cases, the message to be passed across will dwell so much on watershed management, wetland conservation and environmental management. There will be a heavy reliance on the use of local languages as against English especially for the radio programmes.

Special target groups to be considered are as follows:

• the different natural resource users (farmers, fuelwood user/housewives, hunters) in the communities
• the various interest groups like women’s or youth groupings
• educational institutions (school environmental clubs formation)
• religious groups (Christian /Islamic /traditional) and
• the general communities

Result 2: Local community-level rules and regulations on sustainable natural resource exploitation and management developed and documented

Planned Activities

4.1.2 To ensure sanity in the sustainable use and management of natural resources within the target communities, local rules and regulations to be administered by the chiefs and their elders must be developed and put in place. This would be achieved through participatory community fora and durbars to be organized where the people will be adequately animated to develop those rules and regulations themselves, with guidance from the project.

The rules and regulations to be developed are to regulate indiscriminate bush burning, unsustainable tree harvesting practices, cultivation near water bodies and hunting and harvesting trees in the wetlands. The rules would be simple with clear penalties/fines. At the end of the Project, rules and regulations on various aspects of natural resource use would have been documented as well as being used within the target communities. Communities would be animated enough to enforce the rules and regulations. Penalties/fines imposed and collected would be managed and utilised by the elders in collaboration with the Community Natural Resource Management Committee (CNRMC) to be set up.

A seven-member Community Natural Resource Management Committee (CNRMC) would be established and their capacities strengthened in each community to oversee all aspects of the Project management within the target communities. The committee would be the highest body on decision-making in relation to natural resource use and management. The committee would also act as the link between the Project Secretariat (PID) and the target communities.
The committee would be made up of the following:

• Chief or his representative
• Spiritual head or his representative
• Landowner’s representative
• Women’s leader
• Youth leader
• Assemblyperson
• Serving or retired teacher

Result 3: Five people from each of the two target communities trained on tree nursery management and as awareness creation and communication coordinators

Planned Activities

4.1.3 It is important to note that the target communities are going to be encouraged to promote natural regeneration as far as possible. Additionally, some amount of planting (enrichment in the wetlands and woodlot establishment) would have to be undertaken. Planting of tree crops would also be pursued as a direct form of poverty alleviation. In order to ensure regular and timely supply of all kinds of tree seedlings for planting purposes, it is recommended that a nursery be established at Kinkangu to supply seedlings to target communities. The nursery when established would be owned and managed by the community people.

In the light of the above, some selected community people would have to be trained in proper nursery management techniques by staff of the Forestry Services Division (FSD). A detailed course programme for their training would be prepared later.

Result 4 Natural regeneration reserves of varying acreages demarcated and being managed in each community

Planned Activities

4.1.4 As mentioned under Result 3 above, the promotion of natural regeneration is to constitute one of the main activities of the Project under consideration. This stems from the fact that with the kind of annual rainfall that is experienced in most parts of the country, efficient vegetation growth in the form of natural regeneration is capable of restoring/rehabilitating degraded areas only if necessary rules and regulations are in place to check the present unsustainable manner of natural resource use and management. Under this activity, fallow land areas ranging between ten (10) to fifteen (15) acres in each target community would be clearly demarcated and set aside as natural community reserves. It is on these reserved lands that the principles of natural regeneration would be put to use and practised. On these lands, the target communities would be assisted to control indiscriminate tree felling, bushfire and other negative activities/practices.

Result 5 Erosion Control activities

Planned Activities

4.1.5 Gully erosion has been the end result of the damaging manner in which land especially close to the stream banks have been used over the years. This needs to be controlled to save the stream and associated natural reservoirs from siltation and also protect the remaining land (both agricultural and the wetlands) from erosion. In the light of the above, various forms of erosion control measures would be undertaken in the communities. In particular, planting appropriate species and stone bunding would be carried out.

Result 6 Sacred groves under effective collaborative management

Planned Activities

4.1.6 Sacred groves within the various communities are sources of vital medicinal plants for treating all manner of ailments within the communities. However, the groves are under great threat as they are being degraded by bushfire and other unsustainable natural resource exploitation practices. The need to conserve and use resources from the groves efficiently cannot therefore be over-emphasized. A number of activities aimed at restoring the integrity of the groves would be undertaken. Some of these include:

• Enrichment planting within groves with indigenous species
• Buffer/green belt creation with appropriate fast growing exotic species
• Regulating harvesting and collection of resources; leaves, branches and barks of trees) from the groves and
• Effective and efficient bushfire control through the establishment and enforcement of community rules and regulations

Result 7: Five hectares of woodlots established in each of the three communities

Planned Activities

4.1.7 As part of the rehabilitation process, woodlots would be established in all the target communities to serve as source of fuel wood and poles for cooking and shelter/ construction respectively. This is aside of the other environmental benefits that the woodlots would be providing. Communities would also be assisted to nurse/procure and plant grafted improved varieties of mango (especially on farmlands given up for re-vegetation or restoration work) as direct poverty alleviation strategy.

Farmers would be assisted to practice agro-forestry with some leguminous species, which have the added advantage of fixing nitrogen and improving soil fertility aside being harvested as fuelwood on maturity. The rules and regulations to be developed would be applied strictly as far as the management of the woodlots are concerned.

Result 8: Watersheds and wetlands under effective collaborative management as a prerequisite for the development of eco-tourism

Planned Activities

4.1.8 Wetlands constitute an even more important biodiversity source in terms of both plant and animal species. The wetlands together with the dry season gardening activities of the people can make these communities a major destination for eco-tourism. Local rules and regulation would also be enforced here to prevent indiscriminate exploitation of the wetlands after re-vegetation with local and exotic species

Result 9: 50% percent of farmers to be practicing slash and mulch

4.1.9 In active collaboration with the Agricultural Extension Agents (AEAs) of the Ministry of Food and Agriculture (MOFA), an aggressive farmer educational campaign would be carried out to create awareness among farmers on the positive aspects of the practice of cover cropping and green manuring. Farmers would also be interacted with to understand the negative effects of slash and burn so as to practise slash and mulch rather.
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Project Snapshot

Area Of Work:
Land Degradation
Grant Amount:
US$ 26,800.00
Co-Financing Cash:
US$ 16,800.00
Co-Financing in-Kind:
US$ 11,000.00
Project Number:
Currently under execution
Project Characteristics and Results
Significant Participation of Indigenous Peoples
Community people would also be made to play the lead role in suggesting measures that are likely to be put in place in rectifying the problem. This process if undertaken properly, would encourage community people to take active part in the various interventions that would be employed in addressing the problem within the community. In addition, this process would result in people being responsible for both inactions and actions with regard to natural resource use and management within the community
Inovative Financial Mechanisms
Interested community members would be assisted to practice apiculture.
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SGP Country office contact

Dr. George Buabin Ortsin
Ms. Lois Sarpong
+233 505740909


UNDP, Global Environment Facility Small Grants Programme P.O. Box 1423
Accra, Greater Accra, 233-302
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