3.1 Geographic Description of project Area
The entire project area of the Community Protected Areas (CPAs) mapping project lies within southern Ghana between latitudes 4044’ and 6o 30’N and longitudes 3015’W and 1012’E in the high forest zone. It includes Western, Central, Greater Accra, Volta, and Ashanti and Brong Ahafo regions, where culture of environmental protection by way of CPAs is significant in most communities and has been estimated to contain about two thirds of the CPAs in Ghana. It occupies a total area of 115,000 km2 (figure1).

Figure1: Project area of mapping of Community Protected Areas in Southern Ghana

According to land use land cover trend analysis, the proposed study area (CPAs) constitutes about 2 percent of the total 10.2 percent forest areas currently existing in Ghana. Outside forest reserves however, CPAs constitute more than 70 percent of rich diversity of biological values.

Various towns and villages within the proposed study area have at least one or two groves existing as ancestral cemeteries and shrines around ecological sensitive areas (mostly watersheds). Within the proposed area however, large number of groves have survived despite intensive pressure and in many areas constitute the only remnant forest amidst severely degraded forest lands and farmlands.

3.2 Problem Analysis

Community Protected Areas (CPAs) are patches of traditionally protected primary forests that contain large portion of Ghana’s biodiversity. They are particular ecosystem that their exploitation is strictly regulated by customary laws. They serve as repository of numerous endemic species. Their protection sustain and strengthen traditional values as well as protecting endangered species, water corridors of stream and rivers, and conserve their rich biological diversity.

In most rural communities in Ghana, CPAs refer to as ancestral forests that are not disturbed for cultural or religious purposes. They are considered sacred because of some historical event that had occurred on the site and believed to be the abode of ancestral spirits. They are accorded strict protection by many forms and their responsibility of protection is vested in the entire community.

According to Yaa Ntiamoah-Baidu et al 1992, the total number of CPAs in Ghana is unknown and their biological composition as well as scientific value have not been studied but have ample evidence of biological values. Data and information on CPAs needed for national planning and policy development do not exist.

Current land use/land cover trend analysis conducted by Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) using historical Landsat satellite imagery (1972/3, 1985/6, 200/01) has revealed that, only 10.2 percent of Ghana’s forest cover exist in 2000. Thus, over the years the high forest has reduced from the previous 8.2 million hectares to an estimated 0.84 million hectares in 2000 representing 90 percent loss of forest cover.

Deforestation therefore remains one of the key environmental problems facing Ghana today. It was also evident from the land use trend analysis that, most of the remaining forests outside the statutory forest reserves are mainly patches of community protected areas which are protected through indigenous beliefs and taboos. However, these CPAs are being threatened by increasing pressure arising from demand from agricultural purposes, surface mining, wildfires and infrastructural development.

Today, a number of scared groves are gradually being destroyed by farming activities and bushfires. Some of them have already been lost to infrastructural development. Nevertheless, the remaining sacred groves serve as botanical museums from which a lot can be learned about the original biodiversity of the countryside.

To halt the process of degradation and protect numerous endemic species and ensure their conservation, spatial analysis and ecological stratification of CPAs introduce principles of integrated resource management in capturing reliable data and information needed for sustainable management of CPAs and protect their biological diversity for posterity.

The project will be achieving its goal of sustainable natural resource management through integrated forest management and forge effective collaboration among local institutions to ensure continues existence of CPAs. There is therefore the need to build indigenous capacity to support survey and mapping the groves to sustain the remaining CPAs and prevent erosion of their biological diversity and ensure their sustainable development.

3.2 Project Purpose

The project will:
? Provide long term vision for CPAs that benefit both people and biodiversity;
? Introduce sustainable resources management to the CPAs in order to prevent degradation of natural resources and maintain their biological diversity;
? Build local capacity in environmental protection in order to preserve and mitigate against extinction of indigenous and endemic flora and fauna;
? Mitigate against erosion CPAs and its effects on nature and people
? Bring out the scientific, ecological and cultural benefits of CPAs;
? Allow people, nature-based tourism and local based forest entrepreneurs to thrive and support each other without natural resource scarcity problems;
? Bring clear benefit of CPAs to mankind;
? Promote better land use practices and tracking of forest degradation in traditional communities;
? Promote awareness creation on status of CPAs in Ghana and adopt mitigation measures to control their erosion;
? Promote community-based management of natural resources and increasing shared benefit and poverty alleviation;
? Ensure sustainability of CPAs and conserve their resources for posterity.

Essential requirements for the achievement of the above tasks are the involvement of stakeholders to develop reliable database as a management tool to promote land use planning and sustainable development for CPAs.

3.3 Project Objectives

The overall objective of the project is to safeguard biological resources outside state protected areas in Southern Ghana, through identification, mapping and ecological status and importance of CPAs for policy and sustainable development.

The specific objectives of the project are:

1. To build local community in survey and mapping of their resources
2. To develop spatial data and information on CPAs in Southern Ghana
3. To stratify CPAs into three dimensional status based on size (small, medium, large);
4. To classify them base on their current ecological condition (well managed, threatening, at risk)
5. To assess human-induces activities along the fringes of the grove and
6. To map their geographical locations and ecological status and attributes

The realization of the project objectives would be guided with the Ghana’s Biodiversity Action Plan which provides a broad framework for people to live in harmony with their natural environment with population deriving benefits through sustainable use of the country’s rich tropical biological diversity.

3.4 Expected Output

1. Capacity of local communities developed to support mapping of CPAs
2. Spatial data and geographical information of CPAs in Southern Ghana compiled
3. Various CPAs of Southern Ghana stratified into three specified dimensions
4. Maps showing geographical locations, sizes and ecological status produced
5. Results and lessons learned disseminated within the country

3.5 Description of project Activities
Output 1: Capacity of local communities developed to support mapping of CPAs
Activities related to Output 1:
? Conduct stakeholder training workshops for fringe communities in each of the regions on;
o Land cover classes around CPAs
o Zoning of CPAs (buffer, intermediate and core)
o Managing and protection of CPAs

Output 2: Spatial data and information of CPAs in Southern Ghana compiled;
Activities related to Output 2:
? Visit all CPAs in each district of Southern Ghana;
? Take GPS readings at centre and 4 corners of each CPA;
? Measure length and breath of each CPAs;
? Take pictures at vantage points to support documentation;

Output 3: Various CPAs of Southern Ghana stratified into three specified dimensions
Activities related to Output 3:
? Calculate area of each CPA at district;
? Compile and harmonise geographical and dimensional data and information at district level;
? Assess status and significance based on ecological condition and human-induced threats;
? Classify CPAs into three dimensional status base on area calculated;

Output 4: Maps showing geographical locations, dimensions and ecological status produced
Activities related to Output 4:
? Map CPAs based on their geographical locations (GPS readings)
? Map CPAs based on special dimensions (small , medium , large)
? Map CPAs based on ecological conditions (well managed, threatened, at risk)
? Map all CPAs with all attributes at district levels
? Map all CPAs with all attributes at regional levels

Output 5: Results and lessons learned disseminated within the country
Activities related to Output 5:
? Document data and information on CPAs in Southern Ghana;
? Conduct stakeholder consultation workshop;
? Conduct two (2) radio broadcast within respective communities;
? Print and inform the general public on spatial and ecological status of CPAs;
? Set up an internet site to disseminate materials and information;


During implementation of the project, capacity for active collaboration and support from the local communities will be required. Thus, a number of fringe farming communities long the CPAs would be developed and engaged to support in the survey, mapping and ecological assessment of CPAs. Traditional structures will also be strengthened to enhance local structures to ensure effective collaboration among the local communities.

Task Leaders of EcoRestorations will be the main implementation team with support from various institutions such as District Managers and Technical Officers of Forest Service Division and EPA in addition to community based organizations, local authorities and farmers.

The Board of Directors will facilitate project administration and implementation and also provide advice on results-based reporting requirements. They will also assist with monitoring, reporting and financial management and to report on implementation efforts to development partners.

Task Leaders who will direct affairs of the Project Management Committee will constitute education and policy, field research, data capturing and analysis and local development as shown in the project management structure below. The Project Team Leaders will report to the Project Manager.

Plan to Ensure Community Participation

The project approach allows local authorities and smallholder farming-communities to participate, protect and safeguard biological resources of CPAs. The project will use principles of collaborative forest management to bring direct participation of fringe communities living along the CPAs to enhance their livelihood, ensure food security and poverty reduction.

The project’s target beneficiaries are smallholder farmers living in the fringes of the CPAs – men, women and their families, many of whom are landowners and farmers whose lands have been assigned to them through traditional rulers. They also include migrant farmers who cultivate land under various sharecropping arrangements. Some of these farmers are involved in food crop production intended for home consumption. Their farming system is based on simple technologies and characterized by little use of productivity enhancing inputs.

The project will work closely with staff of EPA and Forest Service Division at regional and district levels. The spatial and ecological analysis will be conducted jointly with the rural communities who would be assisted to learn simple technologies in surveys.

A total of 200 farm families, of which an estimated 30% are female-headed are expected to participate directly in project activities, 20 families in each community. These farmers undertake many of their activities in group. They will be encouraged to support in the measuring dimensions of CPAs. The project will facilitate and strengthen these groups.

Selection of beneficiaries will be through a participatory and transparent process with deliberate efforts made to ensure that the process is all-inclusive, fair, and promotes the full participation of all interested groups in the communities. The selection criteria will ensure that women will have equal opportunity to participate in project activities in their own rights be they wives with participating husbands or heads of households. The process will ensure that the proportion of participating women is not less than 20% of all beneficiaries. Other beneficiaries of the project will community based organization, opinion leaders, traditional council, government institutions, other non governmental organization and respective district assemblies.

Risk to Successful Implementation

For success of the spatial analysis and ecological status of CPAs, the following risks have been identified as challenges to implementation to ensure that their impacts are addressed during implementation of the project.

RISK Likelihood Impact Risk Management Strategy
Local authorities, farmers, government agencies and CBOs do not support project implementation low medium Development partners offer additional synergies for community action
Ineffective management of funds low medium Project Management Committee ensures rigorous audits, monitoring and evaluation of project
Supporting institutions and communities do not provide in-kind and financial support low high Community and implementing institutions encouraged to provide leverage in project implementation
Loading map...

Project Snapshot

Area Of Work:
Multifocal Area
Grant Amount:
US$ 19,000.00
Co-Financing Cash:
US$ 5,000.00
Co-Financing in-Kind:
US$ 27,000.00
Project Number:
Satisfactorily Completed


Enviornmental Protection Agency

SGP Country office contact

Dr. George Buabin Ortsin
Ms. Lois Sarpong
+233 505740909


UNDP, Global Environment Facility Small Grants Programme P.O. Box 1423
Accra, Greater Accra, 233-302
Sildenafil (PDE-5 Inhibitor) available on online in 25/50/100 mg doses for erectile dysfunction treatment